Construction site safety Requirements
The First and Foremost moto of any company should be committed to achieve its goal of ‘zero’ – zero fatality, zero injuries and zero excuses. In order to achieve this, every Engineer working at site is responsible to ensure zero tolerance to any Safety violation.
In the process of completing the Work, the Safety Engineer should ensure strict compliance with applicable safety standard requirements. In the event of any inconsistency between the Safety requirements and safety at site Site Safety Engineer should take strict actions.
Construction site safety rules and regulations in India
1. Work at Height Site Safety Requirements
- Height works above one point eight (1.8) metres have safe access, egress, and safe platform. Otherwise people shall be secured through use of full body harness with double lanyard including shock absorber and sufficient strengthened lifeline support.
- Working platform shall have hand rail, mid rail and toe board. Certified horizontal life line shall be used, preferably 8mm wire rope.
- Working at more than five (5) metres (e.g. transmission tower, truck covering etc.), or requiring different body posture even at lesser height shall require “Fall Arrestor” (for vertical movement).
- Falling objects safety net shall be installed to arrest such objects.
- Step ladder / platform should be used if any personnel intends to work at height. Use of empty drums to climb up is banned. People handling tools with them for working at height shall have tool kits to facilitate three (3) point contact during access and egress.
- Employer’s floor-hole cover policy shall be complied with and hole covers shall be fabricated as per such policy and design.
- The Site Safety Engineer should also have a rescue plan in writing, in which all persons at the Site, including people working at a height, are how to be rescued mentioned.
2. Construction site Scaffolding work safety requirements
- Every scaffolding and its support should have proper strength and defects free . Use of wood and bamboo scaffolds are banned.
- All elevated structures and working platform areas should be fenced from all sides with railings and toe board.
- Scaffolding should be made to support at least four (4) times the anticipated weight of men and material. It shall have standard inclined ladder / staircase for access and egress.
- Landing platform shall be provided at every nine (9) meters of height. Extra support can be taken from existing nearby structure. Maintain a safe distance from power lines.
- Fall protection when erecting, dismantling, modifying scaffolding is to be done in the manner so no person below it.
Scaffolding shall be designed, erected, and certified for use by competent persons. Ready for use scaffolding shall be tagged with green board while other scaffolding shall be tagged with red tag and shall not be used pending certification.
3. Portable Ladders Safety Site Requirement-
- only commercially available and approved ladders of metal / aluminium / fibreglass are allowed to be used.
- metal ladders shall not be used by persons performing electric welding or working near energized electric lines or services lines.
- painted ladders should not be allowed.
- all ladders shall be inspected by a qualified person or inspection agency as per the statutory requirements.
- bends, dents, cracks, loose or missing rivets, disconnected braces, condition of steps and corrosion seriously weaken a ladder. Destroy or repair any defective ladders immediately in accordance with manufacturers’ recommendations
4. Barricades and Signs Safety Site Requirement
- The Engineer should see that banner required for indicating (warning) and protecting from hazards such as excavated area, opening of a platform, crane swing area, fabrication yard, overhead work, to carry out work on road and such other locations should be properly written.
- Protective barricades shall be made of sheet metal or 40 NB pipe, painted with yellow and black stripes or red and white stripes, with caution signage, it should that much strong enough, to resist a force of one hundred (100) kilograms, for excavated pit more than one (1) metre depth.
- For Site Safety warning, indicative barricades can be made of fluorescent tape, cable and ropes with signs affixed. After excavation done, excavated pit should not be left unprotected or without signs indicating caution during the job till backfilling is completed. Caution tape shall be used to highlight hazards to other personnel that may need to access the area.
- Barricade must be at least 1.5 meters from the edge of the excavation. No excavated earth or vehicle movement is to be allowed within 1.5 m of an excavated pit.
- Barricades, in areas with night traffic by vehicles or people, must be lit with warning flashers (red or yellow) every fifty (50) meters and there shall be caution boards and warning flags.
5. Inside Construction Area Safety Requirements
- Ensure proper ventilation (forced or exhaust), illumination using 24 V power supply
- carry out checks for presence of toxic/ flammable gases, monitor the oxygen content in confined spaces and ensure availability of communication media between stand-by confined spaces attendant and people inside confined spaces
- ensure availability of self-contained breathing apparatus or equivalent and use of all relevant personal protective equipment as per JSA and PTW.
- ensure that all persons exit from the confined space upon completion of the work. To ensure such exit, head count of the men entering and exiting such confirm spaces shall be performed and a record maintained in a register.
6.Construction site Excavation Safety Requirements
- Before an excavation begins, the Engineer first task is to verify Site specific conditions such as traffic, vibrations, proximity of structures, soil, surface water and groundwater, chemical contamination of water, water table, overhead and underground utilities along with Site map, weather condition etc.
Some construction side inside precautions required are:
- provision of high visibility jacket for persons exposed to traffic.
- remove or stabilize all surface impediments including by way of removal of loose rock or soil that could fall and create hazards to persons.
- erect either warning barricades (with depth of less than one (1) metres) or rigid, protective barricades (with depth of more than one (1) metre) to avoid leaving an excavation hazard unprotected. However, a spoil pile at least one point five (1.5) meter high can be used as a barricade on one side of the excavation.
- keep spoil dirt and any material or equipment that may fall into an excavation at least one point five (1.5) meter from the edge.
- Excavated pits deeper than one point five (1.5) meters will have a maximum height of vertical wall of one point five (1.5) meters with sloped edges at forty five degrees (450).
- protect, support, or remove underground installations (e.g., electrical ducts, water lines, sewer lines, or fire lines).
- prohibit personnel from working or passing under the loads of lifting or digging equipment inside the pit.
- provide support systems such as shoring, bracing, or underpinning to ensure the stability of adjoining buildings, walls or structures, particularly if depth is more than one (1) metre. In such cases, confined space entry shall be obtained and safe access / egress path shall be provided.
- that no worker shall be allowed to work alone in a trench at any time.
7. Construction site Hot Job Safety Requirements
- Any hot work involving welding, cutting, brazing, polishing or heating a metal drum, barrel, or tank. Sealed container, cylinder etc. must not be welded or gas cut in any case.
- Flammable source must be removed or protected from heat using fire retardant mat(s). There shall be flash back arrester both at cylinder and torch, precaution related to gas cylinder safety shall be adhered to and welding machine.
- The Engineer should not permit use AC transformer type welding machine and only generator / rectifier type machine shall be used. Electrical DB supply must be fitted with ELCB/RCCB set for thirty milli-ampere (30mA).
- Spatters generated from hot work must be arrested and the area shall be barricaded if hot work is performed at height.
- The Safety engineer should ensure availability and use of PPEs Site safety.
- A trained fire watcher must be placed for all critical hot work.
The Construction site should have fire extinguisher during hot work which shall be periodically inspected and checked for the purposes of being fit to use.
8. Electrical installation safety rules and regulations in India
- Any temporary power distribution system including the source shall be designed and approved by electrical engineer.
- All cables overhead should be more than two point five (2.5) metres on insulated or wooden support and no temporary cable shall be laid over the ground.
- all electrical installations, distribution box and welding machines should be prominently marked for identifications with hazard signs and following information shall be provided: identification number, name of the Contractor/Subcontractor, source of incoming/outgoing power and danger sign in case of 440V DB.
- power supply points are of adequate capacity, provided with proper switch and fuse arrangement and installed at strategic locations.
- panel rooms/ distribution box pathways are clear and free from any obstructions.
- temporary electrical installations must meet the same electrical code requirements as permanent installation, i.e. proper earthing, glands and seals at electrical boxes and cable repairs equal to the original cable insulation.
- Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB) or Residual Current Circuit Breaker (RCCB): earth protection for personnel on the Sites shall be provided by a thirty milli-ampere (30mA) ELCB/RCCB. It should not be replaced by MCB.
- the Electricity Rules, 2005 and safety requirements specified under the applicable regulations issued by the Central Electricity Authority are complied with and the following are adhered to:
- engage a wire-man and technician or engineer (license holder) to work on all electrical installations;
- ensure that only industrial type plug and sockets are used and proper earth is provided on electrical installations;
- electrical distribution boxes are installed on mountings at predetermined locations with its nomenclature;
- rain protections are provided on electrical installations and DBs;
- only three core double insulated cables are used for any temporary wiring or portable/ hand held tools or lightings;
- use authorized cable jointers / connectors to join the cables;
- handles/ body of portable electrical tools shall be of rubber or insulating material; and
electrical system shall be handled by a competent and authorized person for the voltage as per authorization and in line with the applicable statutory requirements.
9. Concreting safety rules and regulations in India
- Tubular steel shall be inspected for rusting, dents, damaged welds etc. before it is wielded. All vertical supports shall be vertically braced and cross bar support. Footings under the support shall be set on firm soil or other suitable materials which assures stability and the prop shall be of full length and not of two or three pieces joined together.
- During pouring of concrete there should be continuous inspection of centring wedges and adjustment screws. Before removing the forms, the Contractor shall ensure that the concrete has developed sufficient strength to support itself and all loads that will be impinging on it.
- Formwork should be properly inspected by a Site Engineer before pouring of concrete begins. All projected reinforcement bars shall be covered / bent when work is being carried out overhead. Any timber form work shall be carefully inspected for cracks and excessive knots before use.
Formwork structure shall have sufficient catwalks and other secure access for inspection.
10.Heavy Earth Moving Equipment (HEME) safety rules and regulations in India
- All HEME supplied or used at the Sites shall have all mandatory attributes for safe operation including rollover protection structure (ROPS), fall-over protection structure (FOPS), reverse and side camera, automatic reverse alarm, fire extinguisher, functional wipers, heating and air conditioning vent as applicable, illumination lamp etc. Operators must be trained sufficiently for keeping it away from over-head power line, not allowing anybody within 10 m radius from the vehicle.
- Driver shall be required to stop engine and come-out from cabin for any discussion. Wearing all PPEs, movement against edge from trenches / excavated area, parking the vehicle with all levers in locked condition and daily and periodic inspection by the operator shall be mandatory and should be trained accordingly.
11. Concrete Vibrators Construction Site safety rules
- Vibrating unit shall be completely enclosed and belt transmitting the power to the unit adequately guarded.
- Electrically operated compactor vibrators shall be totally enclosed and be protected against overloads by suitable overload relays and shall be effectively earthed. Sufficient length of cable to the vibrator shall be ensured.
- Needle load shall be firmly locked while inserting in the vibrator and inner core shall be adequately lubricated.
12. Concrete Mixers Construction Site safety rules
- All gears, chains and rollers of concrete mixer should be adequately guarded to prevent damage / danger.
- Concrete mixer hopper shall be protected by side railing to prevent workers from passing under them and operators shall make sure before lowering the skip bucket that no one is there. Hopper hoist, wire rope and anchoring brake, skip hoist clutch, has to be checked for its condition and adjusted periodically. Nothing should be kept inside the motor enclosure.
The Operator shall ensure that motor fan guard is secured firmly, wiring is properly connected and insulated and double earthing is done for electric mixers.
13. Construction site Safety Education and Training
- All Engineer, and Supervisor and foreman are required to attend Site safety orientation/induction training, prior to entry to the Site.
The information provided during the site Safety Education and Training should include:
- Job rules, personal safety and conduct;
- Life Saving Safety Rules, hazards reporting;
- reporting of injuries/pre-existing conditions; emergency procedures;
- working with chemicals;
- safety activities and program including disciplinary measure and incentives
14. Appointment of Safety Resources, Supervisors and Safety Stewards at Construction Site
- The Construction site should appoint necessary and agreed competent safety resources for the job. The Construction company should made availability of one safety supervisor in case of up to one hundred (100) deployed personnel and an additional safety supervisor for personnel numbering between one hundred (100) and two hundred (200). However, if deployed personnel are more than two hundred (200), then a minimum of one safety officer is required to be deployed and for every additional one hundred (100) personnel, an additional safety supervisor shall be required. The Contractor should also deploy trained safety stewards at the rate of one for every fifty (50) personnel for ensuring safety vigilance.
15. Personal Protective Equipment (PPEs) for Construction Site
- Use of safety helmets, safety shoes, high visibility jackets and safety eye wear shall be mandatory. Based on the job requirement, other PPEs like gum-boot, electrically insulated hand gloves, electrical safety shoes, respiratory mask for dust nuisance or other chemical fumes protection, hand gloves or leather hand gloves, full body harness with lifeline support, retractable fall arrester, safety net, PVC suit, arc flash suit, cotton blue dress, flame retardant cloths, welder’s masks with suitable screen numbered visor, gas cutter goggles, runner etc.,
- All the PPEs used by the personnel shall, at all times, be in accordance with at least one of the following internationally recognized standards: (i) ANSI; (ii) ISO; (iii) BS; (iv) IS or (v) EU. The Contractor shall take prior approval of the Employer, for any deviation in the PPE standards proposed to be used for the performance of the Scope of Work.
16. Notice Boards/ Caution Boards/ Safety Awareness Boards
- There must be a safety board which must contain following items:- manpower numbers; date of last incident occurred; total number of injuries, incidences and near-miss case reporting; million man-hours injury free recorded; and details of contact persons in case of emergency, ‘Current
Severity Index’, and numbers of 4s and 5s severity unsafe acts and conditions.
- The Construction site should also have display a Site layout, indicating the project manager’s details, Contractor’s details, job details, date of start and expected end date of job, path-way, first-aid post, drinking water, change room, toilet, entry and exit point, parking etc. A general background colour coding of different messages are: blue – mandatory, red – prohibited, yellow – danger, green – safe condition.
17. Medical/First Aid Treatment Construction Site safety rules
- The Construction site should have a first aid box and/or medical centre as per statutory requirement and shall have a tie-up with nearby good specialty hospital to manage medical emergencies. A medical attendant shall administer first-aid care to injured personnel using established standards of practice, or as directed by the local consulting physician.
- When an injury occurs at the Site and requires treatment beyond the limits of the medical attendant, the Project Manager should ensure that such personnel is transported to the nearest hospital.
18. Housekeeping construction Site safety rules
- The Site Staff is responsible for maintaining very high standard of housekeeping including clearly defined walkways and stairways, keeping clean unobstructed pathway free of tripping hazards, prohibit storage of materials and equipment in aisles or under stairways, posting signs or barricades to warn tripping or slipping hazards, maintaining adequate lighting, having well-marked first aid/assembly points and not allowing loose material at height (placing them in cage/box).
- Storage Areas
- The Storage Areas should have define boundary by barricades, provide adequate size as per provision and discourage excess material and equipment. All material shall be stored in a neat, safe and orderly fashion with proper labelling.
- Trash removal plan
Trash is removed, accumulated and dumped at the designated disposal area on a daily basis. Collected trash and bins shall be cleared once a week to identified dumping area. No trash shall be thrown from height and shall be handled through a chute. As a best practice, the Employer appreciates the concept of “generator should be the cleaner”.
- Rest Rooms and Drinking Water
Toilet facility and drinking water for their personnel in a hygienic manner as per the statutory requirements. These facilities should be separate for all genders.
19. General Construction site safety rules and regulations in India
- The Construction site should have proper illumination at the work location.
Labour Camp : The Labour Camp should have a personnel shall, ensure compliance with the requirements pertaining to health and sanitation, including requirement of maintaining hygiene on Site.
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